LoRa: Low power long Range radio telemetry platform is the prevailing technology choice for building IoT networks. License free this technology does not use the cellular network for transmission but instead it uses radio waves at very low power and capable of 20 miles+ connections line of sight.
Admittedly less distance within built up areas and within buildings but still longer distances than WiFi and no need to jump on the WiFi network or Ethernet LAN for communication to the gateway. We have installations with small battery powered devices connected to the single antenna gateway across a 240 acre site, some below steel manhole covers!
LoRa is most suited to multiple sensor devices as LoRa sensors tend to be lower cost than other non-wired solutions such as cellular.
Battery life can be over a year and in some cases where only small amounts of data such as a temperature value or HEALTHY/FAULT status the battery life can be 5 years+